A) THE ALPHABET
a as in
b as in
ts as in
ch as in
d as in
a as in
f as in
g as in
j as in
h as in
i as in
y as in
z as in
k as in
l as in
m as in
n as in
o as in
p as in
r as in
s as in
sh as in
t as in
u as in
u as in
v as in
z as in
Remark. ― If it be found impraticable to
print works with the diacritical signs (^,˘), the letter
be substituted for the sign (^), and the sign
(˘), may be
B) PARTS OF SPEECH
1. There is no indefinite, and only one definite, article,
for all genders, numbers, and cases.
2. Substantives are formed by adding o to the root. For the plural, the letter
j must be added
to the singular. There are two cases: the nominative and the objective
(accusative). The root with the added
o is the nominative, the
objective adds an n after the
o. Other cases are formed by
prepositions; thus, the possessive (genitive) by
de, „of”; the
dative by al, „to”, the instrumental
(ablative) by kun,
„with”, or other preposition as the sense demands. E. g. root
„father”; la patr'o, „the father”; la
father” (objective), de la patr'o, „of the father”;
patr'o, „to the father”; kun la patr'o, „with the father”;
la patr'o'j, „the fathers”;
la patr'o'j'n, „the fathers”
(obj.), por la patr'o'j, „for the fathers”.
3. Adjectives are formed by adding a to the root. The numbers and cases are the same as in
substantives. The comparative degree is formed by prefixing
pli (more); the superlative by
plej (most). The word „than” is rendered
by ol, e. g.
pli blanka ol neĝo, „whiter than snow”.
4. The cardinal numerals do not change their forms for the different
cases. They are: unu (1),
mil (1000). The tens and hundreds are formed
by simple junction of the numerals, e. g. 533 =
kvin'cent tri'dek tri.
Ordinals are formed by adding the adjectival a to the cardinals, e.
g. unu'a, „first”;
du'a, „second”, etc. Multiplicatives
(as „threefold”, „fourfold”, etc.) add
obl, e. g.
„threefold”. Fractionals add on, as
du'on'o, „a half”;
kvar'on'o, „a quarter”. Collective numerals add
op, as kvar'op'e, „four together”. Distributive prefix
po, e. g.,
po kvin, „five apiece”. Adverbials take
e, e. g.,
5. The personal pronouns are: mi, „I”;
„you”; li, „he”;
ŝi, „she”; ĝi, „it”;
si, „self”; ni, „we”;
oni, „one”, „people”, (French „on”). Possessive pronouns are formed
by suffixing to the required personal, the adjectival termination. The
declension of the pronouns is identical with that of substantives. E. g.
mi, „I”; mi'n, „me”
(obj.); mi'a, „my”, „mine”.
6. The verb does not change its form for numbers or persons, e. g.
far'as, „I do”; la patr'o far'as, „the father does”;
far'as, „they do”.
Forms of the Verb:
The present tense ends in as, e. g.
mi far'as, „I
The past tense ends in is, e. g.
li far'is, „he
The future tense ends in os, e. g.
„they will do”.
The subjunctive mood ends in us, e. g.
„she may do”.
The imperative mood ends in u, e. g.
ni far'u, „let
The infinitive mood ends in i, e. g.
fari, „to do”.
There are two forms of the participle in the international language, the
changeable or adjectival, and the unchangeable or adverbial.
The present participle active ends in ant, e. g.
far'ant'a, „he who is doing”;
The past participle active ends in int, e. g.
„he who has done”; far'int'e, „having done”.
The future participle active ends in ont, e. g.
far'ont'a, „he who will do”;
far'ont'e, „about to do”.
The present participle passive ends in at, e. g.
far'at'e, „being done”.
The past participle passive ends in it, e. g.
„that which has been done”; far'it'e, „having been done”.
The future participle passive ends in ot, e. g.
„that which will be done”; far'ot'e, „about to be done”.
All forms of the passive are rendered by the respective
forms of the verb est (to be) and the participle passive of the
required verb; the preposition used is de, „by”. E. g.
est'as am'at'a de ĉiu'j, „she is loved by every one”.
7. Adverbs are formed by adding e to the root. The degrees of comparison are the same as in adjectives,
e. g., mi'a frat'o kant'as pli bon'e ol mi, „my brother sings
better than I”.
8. All prepositions govern the nominative case.
C) GENERAL RULES
9. Every word is to be read exactly as written, there are no silent
10. The accent falls on the last syllable but one, (penultimate).
11. Compound words are formed by the simple junction of roots,
principal word standing last), which are written as a single word, but, in
elementary works, separated by a small line ('). Grammatical terminations
are considered as independent words. E. g. vapor'ŝip'o, „steamboat”
is composed of the roots vapor, „steam”, and
boat”, with the substantival termination o.
12. If there be one negative in a clause, a second is not admissible.
13. In phrases answering the question „where?” (meaning direction), the
words take the termination of the objective case; e. g.
kie'n vi ir'as?„where
are you going?”; dom'o'n, „home”;
London'o'n, „to London”, etc.
14. Every preposition in the international language has a definite fixed
meaning. If it be necessary to employ some preposition, and it is not quite
evident from the sense which it should be, the word
je is used,
which has no definite meaning; for example, ĝoj'i je tio, „to
rejoice over it”;
rid'i je tio, „to laugh
at it”; enu'o je la patr'uj'o, „a longing for one’s fatherland”. In every
language different prepositions, sanctioned by usage, are employed in these
dubious cases, in the international language, one word,
suffices for all. Instead of je, the objective without a preposition may be used, when no
confusion is to be feared.
15. The so-called „foreign” words, i. e. words which the greater number
of languages have derived from the same source, undergo no change in the
international language, beyond conforming to its system of orthography. ―
Such is the rule with regard to primary words, derivatives are better formed
(from the primary word) according to the rules of the international grammar,
e. g. teatr'o, „theatre”, but
teatr'a, „theatrical”, (not
16. The a of the article, and final
o of substantives,
may be sometimes dropped euphoniae gratia, e. g.
de l’ mond'o
for de la mond'o;
Ŝiller'o; in such cases an apostrophe should be
substituted for the discarded vowel.